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HEALTH TOPICS
BY BODY PART

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health topics by body part
health topics by body part

What is Physiotherapy?

Physiotherapy is a science-based healthcare profession that promotes recovery in illness, injury or disability. It aims to restore movement and ...

Sports Injuries

Sports injuries are injuries sustained when playing sports or during exercise. They occur either as accidents or due to poor ...

Children’s Physiotherapy

Children’s physiotherapy, or paediatric physiotherapy, is a specialised area of physiotherapy. It serves the unique needs of babies, children and young ...

How to become a Physiotherapist

Physiotherapy is often described as an innovative, pioneering and highly rewarding career. Qualified physiotherapists can choose among a wide range ...

Physiotherapy For Stroke

Stroke is the leading cause of disability in the UK. Figures from the Stroke Association show that every year about ...

The PRICE Protocol for Acute Injuries

An acute or recent injury can be improved by careful management of the initial period up to 72 hours. PRICE ...

Arthritis

Arthritis covers a large number of joint diseases which present with pain and stiffness in our joints. The medical specialty ...

Osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint condition in the world and affects hundreds of millions of people. It causes the largest ...

Acupuncture

Acupuncture is a health treatment originally developed in ancient Chinese medicine in which needles are inserted into defined points on ...

Physiotherapy For The Elderly

Physiotherapists have a vital and important role in working with elderly people. They are involved in preventing disease and disability, ...

Back Pain

Back pain is the most common musculoskeletal reason why patients see their doctors. It is a leading cause of disability ...

Sciatica

Sciatica is the name given to severe leg pain usually thought to be due to a prolapsed lumbar disc compressing ...

Spinal Stenosis

Spinal stenosis is the narrowing of the space in the spinal canal which can put pressure on the spinal cord and nerves ...

Tennis Elbow Pain

Tennis elbow is an overuse condition giving pain in the forearm muscles near the elbow when holding or gripping objects. ...

Golfer’s Elbow

Golfer’s elbow is also known as medial epicondylitis and is similar to tennis elbow or lateral epicondylitis. Both conditions are ...

Tension Headache

Headaches are very common and estimated to be the ninth most common reason to visit the doctor. Tension-type headaches are ...

Cervicogenic Headache

Cervicogenic headache is one of several types of headaches, in this case a headache that is caused by injury or ...

Costochondritis & Tietze Syndrome

Tietze, a German surgeon, first described this problem of pain in the rib joints at the front of the chest ...

Shoulder Impingement Syndrome

Shoulder impingement syndrome is the name given to a shoulder pain problem caused by the repetitive compression of part of ...

Shoulder Pain

Pain felt in the shoulder can come from a large number of potential sources. These include the neck, the shoulder ...

Frozen Shoulder

Frozen shoulder is the term for a shoulder pain condition that occurs mostly in middle aged to older people, is ...

Rotator Cuff Injury

Rotator cuff tears are tears in the tendons of the muscles that control much of the shoulder’s stability and mobility. ...

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

Carpal tunnel syndrome or CTS is a collection of signs and symptoms in the hand which all relate to compression ...

Wrist Fracture or Broken Wrist

The wrist is the most commonly injured part of the arm and three-quarters of wrist injuries are wrist fractures of ...

Arm Pain

Arm pain can be due to a number of different reasons. It can be caused by a neck problem, a ...

Bicipital Tendonitis

Bicipital tendonitis causes shoulder pain due to inflammation of one of the biceps tendons. It is also referred to as ...

Dupuytren’s Disease or Dupuytren’s Contracture

Dupuytren’s Disease, also called Dupuytren’s Contracture, is a condition of the hand, which results in the fingers being pulled down ...

Metacarpal Fracture

Metacarpal fractures are most common in younger adults and adolescents. Anatomy The metacarpal bones are the long bones of the hand. They ...

Hip Pain

Anatomically the hip joint is a precise structure in a particular location in the body. However, in common language “the ...

Trochanteric Bursitis

Trochanteric bursitis or greater trochanter pain syndrome (GTPS) is a hip pain condition that can be persistent and troubling, restricting ...

Hip Replacement

Total hip replacement (THR) is one of the most successful surgical operations in terms of increasing quality of life. In ...

Groin Strain

Groin strain is common in sport, especially hockey, basketball, soccer, tennis, horse riding and karate. They can be very debilitating ...

Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injury

An anterior cruciate ligament sprain or tear is one of the commonest knee injuries. People who play fast sports such ...

Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

Kneecap pain is one of the commonest complaints in people of all ages. Patella Anatomy The patella or kneecap is a sesamoid ...

Meniscus Tear

A meniscus tear is a tear in the fibrocartilage wedge structures that fill the space between the rounded femur and ...

Knee Replacement

Total knee replacement (TKR), or total knee arthroplasty (TKA), is the replacement of the arthritic joint surfaces of the knee ...

Thigh Contusion

A thigh contusion is an injury to the quadriceps at the front of the thigh, usually as a result of ...

Shin Splints

Shin splints or MTSS is one of the commonest causes of exercise-related leg pain in athletes. Although shin splints is commonly ...

Sprained Ankle

A sprained ankle is an extremely common form of foot pain and most people manage it on their own without ...

Metatarsalgia

Metatarsalgia is a general term for foot pain under the ball of the foot, the pads under the heads of ...

Bunion

What Is A Bunion? A bunion, known medically as hallux valgus, is a common foot deformity indicated by a large lump ...

Plantar Fasciitis

Plantar fasciitis (FASH-EE-EYE-TISS) is a foot pain condition that gives sharp and severe heel pain on weight bearing. It often ...

Achilles Tendon

Achilles tendinopathy is a painful condition of the Achilles tendon that relates to its inability to repair itself successfully after ...

Calf Strain

The gastrocnemius is the main calf muscle, the muscle that is easily seen in viewing an athlete from behind. The ...

Hamstring Injury

The most dramatic and public hamstring injury occurs when you see an Olympic athlete pull up suddenly in the sprint, ...

Piriformis Syndrome

Piriformis syndrome is a collection of symptoms that involve buttock pain, often with hip, groin or leg pain, and is ...

Sacroiliac Joint Pain

The sacroiliac joint (SIJ) or SI joint is a large force transmission joint at the base of the spine. The ...

Middle Back Pain

Lumbar and cervical (neck) pain conditions are much more common than thoracic pain complaints. Thoracic pain consultations make up only ...

Neck Strain

Neck strains and sprains are some of the most common musculoskeletal injuries. Neck pain from acceleration and deceleration injuries after ...

Whiplash

Whiplash associated disorder or WAD is a familiar and common result of a car accident and a cause of significant ...

Upper Back Pain

Thoracic pain complaints are much less common than lumbar and cervical (neck) pain conditions. Around 15% of consultations are for ...

Physiotherapy Articles By Topic


What is Physiotherapy?

Physiotherapy is a science-based healthcare profession that promotes recovery in illness, injury or disability. It aims to restore movement and functional ability to the person’s full potential. Physiotherapy is an independent profession where practitioners make their own treatment decisions and clinical judgements. They constantly reassess the results of their treatments and adjust their approach. Physiotherapists in the United Kingdom are HCPC registered health care professionals. They [...]

Sports Injuries

Sports injuries are injuries sustained when playing sports or during exercise. They occur either as accidents or due to poor training practices such as not warming up or using improper gear. Sports medicine is the medical specialty dealing with these injuries. They are mostly caused by applying forces greater than a body part can structurally endure at one time or over a longer period. Common sports [...]

Childrens Physiotherapy

Children’s Physiotherapy

Children’s physiotherapy, or paediatric physiotherapy, is a specialised area of physiotherapy. It serves the unique needs of babies, children and young adults from birth to leaving school. Paediatric physiotherapists' training allows them to manage the physical, mental and educational needs of children. Children may have developmental, learning, neurological, respiratory or musculoskeletal difficulties. Paediatric physiotherapists can assess and treat a wide range of conditions with the child and their parents. These conditions [...]

How to become a Physiotherapist

Physiotherapy is often described as an innovative, pioneering and highly rewarding career. Qualified physiotherapists can choose among a wide range of specialties and exciting career paths, in both public and private environments, and have tremendous opportunities for being at the forefront in delivering quality patient care. Unsurprisingly, the physiotherapy workforce has increased significantly over the years. A census by the NHS Information Centre shows that the [...]

Physiotherapy For Stroke

Stroke is the leading cause of disability in the UK. Figures from the Stroke Association show that every year about 152,000 people have a stroke – one every five minutes. The number of survivors is estimated at 1.1 million, more than half of whom are left with disabilities that affect their daily function. For patients who have had a stroke, physiotherapy is an important and valuable [...]

The PRICE Protocol for Acute Injuries

An acute or recent injury can be improved by careful management of the initial period up to 72 hours. PRICE therapy is the best way to treat milder joint sprains and muscle strains. It reduces inflammation and swelling and helps to limit pain. This allows you to recover as quickly as possible. PRICE stands for Protection, Rest, Ice, Compression and Elevation   Protection involves preventing the injured area [...]

Arthritis

Arthritis covers a large number of joint diseases which present with pain and stiffness in our joints. The medical specialty for these conditions is rheumatology and doctors specialising in this field are known as rheumatologists. Around 10 million people in the UK may suffer from one sort of arthritis or another. Of the many different conditions the most common are: Osteoarthritis (OA) – This is an [...]

Osteoarthritis Knee Explained

Osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint condition in the world and affects hundreds of millions of people. It causes the largest amount of disability of any medical condition. Physiotherapy is extremely helpful in managing the long-term effects of OA. A Normal Joint Where two or more bones meet together is a joint. Our bodies have large numbers of different kinds of joints but the most common are called [...]

Acupuncture Needles

Acupuncture

Acupuncture is a health treatment originally developed in ancient Chinese medicine in which needles are inserted into defined points on the body. Many physiotherapists use acupuncture, trigger point acupuncture and acupressure to relieve pain and speed recovery. Acupuncturists now divide into two main streams, traditional Chinese practitioners and Western medical practitioners: In traditional Chinese medicine the belief is that life energy or chi (said chee) flows through [...]

Physiotherapy For The Elderly

Physiotherapy For The Elderly

Physiotherapists have a vital and important role in working with elderly people. They are involved in preventing disease and disability, treating current conditions, managing inpatient care and following up in the community. Physiotherapists have a wide range of skills that can benefit many conditions suffered by elderly people. Elderly care physiotherapists specialise in the assessment, treatment and long-term management of older people in their homes, in [...]


Neck Strain Illustration

Neck Strain

Neck strains and sprains are some of the most common musculoskeletal injuries. Neck pain from acceleration and deceleration injuries after a car crash is often called Whiplash Syndrome or Whiplash Associated Disorder (WAD). Neck Anatomy The neck consists of seven cervical vertebrae stacked on top of each other and separated by intervertebral discs. The top two vertebrae are specialised for head rotation and flexion/extension (bending forwards and [...]

Whiplash Illustration

Whiplash

Whiplash associated disorder or WAD is a familiar and common result of a car accident and a cause of significant costs in lost work, disability, pain and medical care. Neck pain is common with 70% of adults reporting an episode at some time in their lives. It appears to be increasing in frequency and increasing in costs as social, work and travel changes impact upon our [...]


Man With Upper Back Pain

Upper Back Pain

Thoracic pain complaints are much less common than lumbar and cervical (neck) pain conditions. Around 15% of consultations are for true thoracic pain. Although most thoracic spinal problems are the result of non-serious conditions, the frequency of serious underlying pathology is greater in thoracic pain. Consultation with a doctor is always wise for a new presentation of thoracic pain. Thoracic Anatomy The thoracic spine is called by several [...]


Middle Back Pain Illustration

Middle Back Pain

Lumbar and cervical (neck) pain conditions are much more common than thoracic pain complaints. Thoracic pain consultations make up only 15% of spinal pain patients who visit a health professional. Non-serious conditions make up the bulk of thoracic spinal problems. However, serious underlying pathology is a more common finding in thoracic pain. New cases of thoracic pain should be reviewed by a doctor. Thoracic Anatomy Non-medical people call [...]


Male Back Pain

Back Pain

Back pain is the most common musculoskeletal reason why patients see their doctors. It is a leading cause of disability around the world. Around 80-85% of adults get low back pain at some time and around 15-20% have a back pain episode in any one-year period. Back pain is most common in adults 30 - 55 years old, but can occur at any age. Younger or older [...]

Sciatica

Sciatica is the name given to severe leg pain usually thought to be due to a prolapsed lumbar disc compressing one of the nerve roots in the lumbar spine. The medical name for sciatica is lumbar radiculopathy and it is also called radicular pain or nerve root pain. There is a lot of confusion about sciatica: Sciatica pain is severe leg pain, usually extending below the knee. [...]

Spinal Stenosis

Spinal Stenosis

Spinal stenosis is the narrowing of the space in the spinal canal which can put pressure on the spinal cord and nerves that travel through the spine. Lumbar stenosis occurs in the lower back, while cervical stenosis occurs in the neck. We can’t predict who will be affected by spinal stenosis apart from, as it is due to ageing, that it will occur in older patients. Preventing this [...]


Shoulder Impingement

Shoulder Impingement Syndrome

Shoulder impingement syndrome is the name given to a shoulder pain problem caused by the repetitive compression of part of the rotator cuff under the bony arch of part of the shoulder blade. Shoulder Anatomy The rotator cuff muscles come from the scapula (shoulder blade) and head for the side of the ball of the arm bone where they insert. As they get towards the ball they [...]

Man With Shoulder Pain

Shoulder Pain

Pain felt in the shoulder can come from a large number of potential sources. These include the neck, the shoulder itself, the heart, the lungs and conditions such as polymyalgia rheumatica. The initial diagnosis is very important as it is essential to rule out serious causes and to focus on treating the correct underlying cause. Shoulder Joint Anatomy The shoulder is a ball and socket joint, but here [...]

Frozen Shoulder Illustration

Frozen Shoulder

Frozen shoulder is the term for a shoulder pain condition that occurs mostly in middle aged to older people, is extremely painful and takes a long time to settle. It is also known as adhesive capsulitis although the cause and pathology is not clear. There may be little to find in the person’s medical history, examination or x-rays findings to explain their situation. Frozen shoulder is [...]

Rotator Cuff Tear

Rotator Cuff Injury

Rotator cuff tears are tears in the tendons of the muscles that control much of the shoulder’s stability and mobility. This is usually a degenerative process associated with ageing although repetitive use or trauma can present in younger people. The saying “Grey hair equals cuff tear” when an older patient consults a shoulder specialist indicates which age group this is most common in. Rotator Cuff Anatomy The [...]


Man With Upper Arm Pain

Arm Pain

Arm pain can be due to a number of different reasons. It can be caused by a neck problem, a shoulder problem or can come from a problem with the arm itself. A physiotherapist can do a detailed assessment to find the likely source of the condition and form a treatment plan. Arm Pain From The Neck Neck-related arm pain is common and generally falls into two [...]

Bicipital Tendonitis Illustration

Bicipital Tendonitis

Bicipital tendonitis causes shoulder pain due to inflammation of one of the biceps tendons. It is also referred to as tendonitis of the long head of the biceps. Anatomy of the Biceps Muscle Biceps means “two heads” as the upper part of the biceps muscle has two parts, known as heads. The short head originates from a part of the scapula (shoulder blade) called the coracoid process. The [...]


Tennis Elbow Wrist Explained

Tennis Elbow Pain

Tennis elbow is an overuse condition giving pain in the forearm muscles near the elbow when holding or gripping objects. It is the most common overuse syndrome. Tennis elbow has been given many names: lateral epicondylitis; lateral epicondyle tendinopathy; lateral elbow tendinopathy; lateral epicondylalgia and more. Lateral epicondyle tendinopathy (LET) is now the official medical name although it’s still referred to as tennis elbow as it’s [...]

Golfer’s Elbow

Golfer’s Elbow

Golfer’s elbow is also known as medial epicondylitis and is similar to tennis elbow or lateral epicondylitis. Both conditions are problems related to degenerative changes in the tendons of the forearm muscles. Golfer’s elbow is less common than tennis elbow, making up around 10-20% of all elbow tendon problems. What is Golfer’s Elbow? Golfer’s elbow is a condition giving pain and weakness on the inside of the [...]


Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Illustration

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

Carpal tunnel syndrome or CTS is a collection of signs and symptoms in the hand which all relate to compression of one of the nerves travelling into the hand from the forearm. Carpal tunnel symptoms can include pain, numbness and pins and needles in the areas of the hand supplied by the median nerve. Loss of strength and feeling in the hand may also be present. Carpal [...]

Wrist Fracture Illustration

Wrist Fracture or Broken Wrist

The wrist is the most commonly injured part of the arm and three-quarters of wrist injuries are wrist fractures of the ends of the radius and ulna. The small wrist bones are much less commonly injured. Wrist fractures can be simply classified into extension fractures of the radius, flexion fractures of the radius and fractures of the carpal or wrist bones. Severity of a broken wrist is [...]


Dupuytrens Diagram Illustration

Dupuytren’s Disease or Dupuytren’s Contracture

Dupuytren’s Disease, also called Dupuytren’s Contracture, is a condition of the hand, which results in the fingers being pulled down towards the palm. This makes it harder and harder to straighten the fingers and reduces hand function. It is classified as a fibrosing disorder, the tightening process occurring in the fibrous tissues of the palm. The knuckle joints of the fingers are mainly affected but the [...]

Metacarpal Fracture Xray

Metacarpal Fracture

Metacarpal fractures are most common in younger adults and adolescents. Anatomy The metacarpal bones are the long bones of the hand. They make up the palm area of the hand and run from the wrist bones to the first finger bones. There are five metacarpals, named the first to the fifth. How The Metacarpals Are Fractured Metacarpals are commonly fractured by what is called axial load, a force applied [...]


Hip Pain Anatomy

Hip Pain

Anatomically the hip joint is a precise structure in a particular location in the body. However, in common language “the hip” can include a wide area of the groin, outer abdomen, the side of the upper leg and the buttock. In this wide area there are many conditions that can lead to pain that is generally described as “hip pain” by most people. True Hip Pain Pain [...]

Trochanteric Hip Bursitis

Trochanteric Bursitis

Trochanteric bursitis or greater trochanter pain syndrome (GTPS) is a hip pain condition that can be persistent and troubling, restricting mobility and sporting activity. What Is Bursitis? A bursa is a small sac that lies between tendons, ligaments and bones, or between the skin and bones. They have synovial linings that secrete a lubricating fluid, limiting the friction between structures as they move across each other. When too [...]

Arthritic Hip Small

Hip Replacement

Total hip replacement (THR) is one of the most successful surgical operations in terms of increasing quality of life. In a hip replacement the arthritic surfaces of a damaged hip are replaced with artificial components called a hip prosthesis. After a long history of efforts to develop a lasting artificial hip, it was Sir John Charnley, in Wrightington UK, who introduced the first effective hip replacement [...]


Man With Groin Injury

Groin Strain

Groin strain is common in sport, especially hockey, basketball, soccer, tennis, horse riding and karate. They can be very debilitating for a short period or repeatedly troublesome over a long period. What Is A Groin Strain? The groin is a complex area involving the abdomen, the hip muscles and the genitals, all of which can be injured. Impact injuries involve a direct blow during contact sports or anywhere [...]


Piriformis Illustration

Piriformis Syndrome

Piriformis syndrome is a collection of symptoms that involve buttock pain, often with hip, groin or leg pain, and is found typically in people with mechanical lower back pain. Anatomy of the Piriformis Muscle The piriformis muscle is a small muscle in the pelvis that rotates the thigh outwards and moves it away from the body. The sciatic nerve runs through the pelvis and its relationship with [...]

Sacroiliac Joint Illustration

Sacroiliac Joint Pain

The sacroiliac joint (SIJ) or SI joint is a large force transmission joint at the base of the spine. The sacroiliac joints carry the body weight from the spine above through to the pelvis and hips. Significant disagreement exists as to how important the sacroiliac joints are in back injuries and lower back pain. Anatomy of the Sacroiliac Joint The sacroiliac joint is a C-shaped joint between [...]


Thigh Muscle Injury

Thigh Contusion

A thigh contusion is an injury to the quadriceps at the front of the thigh, usually as a result of a blow in sport. What Causes A Thigh Contusion? A direct blow to the thigh muscles from a hard object or a person’s head or knee typically causes a thigh contusion, almost always during sporting activity. This injury can be very painful and functionally disabling; with severe [...]


Hamstring Injury Illustration

Hamstring Injury

The most dramatic and public hamstring injury occurs when you see an Olympic athlete pull up suddenly in the sprint, grimacing and clutching the back of their thigh. It happens quickly and you can’t run afterwards. Hamstring Anatomy The hamstrings are a group of three muscles at the back of the thigh. They are the biceps femoris, semimembranosus and semitendinosus. The biceps femoris is the most often [...]


ACL Tear Anatomy

Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injury

An anterior cruciate ligament sprain or tear is one of the commonest knee injuries. People who play fast sports such as basketball, skiing, football and rugby are more likely to injure their cruciate ligaments. When you injure your cruciate ligament, the treatment depends on the severity of the injury and your level of activity. You may need surgery to regain the full function of your knee in [...]

Patello Femoral Joint Anatomy

Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

Kneecap pain is one of the commonest complaints in people of all ages. Patella Anatomy The patella or kneecap is a sesamoid bone, a bone that is located within the tendon of a muscle. It makes a joint with the large condyles of the femur at the knee joint. The patella runs in a track in the groove between the condyles. The patella acts as a fulcrum [...]

Meniscus Tear Illustration

Meniscus Tear

A meniscus tear is a tear in the fibrocartilage wedge structures that fill the space between the rounded femur and flat tibia on both sides of the knee. Injury to a meniscus of the knee is a very common condition to occur in the knee joint. The meniscus is often called a knee cartilage although the name cartilage is best used for the slippery surface material [...]

Knee Replacement Small

Knee Replacement

Total knee replacement (TKR), or total knee arthroplasty (TKA), is the replacement of the arthritic joint surfaces of the knee with artificial components. Although not as successful initially as the early hip replacements pioneered by Sir John Charnley in the UK, knee replacement has matured into a routine and predictable treatment for the severe knee pain of arthritis. The modern success of knee replacement is based on [...]


Shin Splint Pain

Shin Splints

Shin splints or MTSS is one of the commonest causes of exercise-related leg pain in athletes. Although shin splints is commonly used to describe shin pain related to activities such as running, medial tibial stress syndrome is now preferred. This is to distinguish it from other causes of shin problems also called shin splints, such as a stress fracture of the tibia.  What Are Shin Splints? Shin splints [...]


Calf Strain Illustration

Calf Strain

The gastrocnemius is the main calf muscle, the muscle that is easily seen in viewing an athlete from behind. The commonest cause of calf muscle pain is a muscle strain from sport or vigorous activity. Calf Anatomy The gastrocnemius (GAS-TROCK-NEEM-EE-US) is a powerful muscle situated at the back of the lower leg. The upper part is made up of two parts, the medial head and the lateral [...]


Sprained Ankle Illustration

Sprained Ankle

A sprained ankle is an extremely common form of foot pain and most people manage it on their own without ever consulting a medically related person. Most people recover completely but an important number develop chronic issues that lead to on-going problems or limitations. Severe sprains are difficult to distinguish from a broken ankle, so medical advice should be sought in cases where the pain is [...]


Plantar Fasciitis Illustration

Plantar Fasciitis

Plantar fasciitis (FASH-EE-EYE-TISS) is a foot pain condition that gives sharp and severe heel pain on weight bearing. It often has a sudden onset and finds the sufferers limping around on their forefoot as they attempt to take pressure off the heel. Plantar refers to the underneath of the foot, in the same way as palmar does of the hand. Anatomy of the Plantar Area The plantar fascia [...]

Achilles Tendon Injury

Achilles Tendon

Achilles tendinopathy is a painful condition of the Achilles tendon that relates to its inability to repair itself successfully after repeated stresses or injury. Achilles tendinopathy is a common injury in sports but can also occur in non-sporting activities. This injury is increasing in frequency as more people do both competitive and recreational sport. Achilles tendinopathy is also referred to as Achilles tendonitis, Achilles tendinitis and Achilles [...]


Metatarsalgia Illustration

Metatarsalgia

Metatarsalgia is a general term for foot pain under the ball of the foot, the pads under the heads of the metatarsal bones. Foot Anatomy The five metatarsal bones extend from the mid-foot down to the toes, making a joint with the proximal (nearest) toe bones at the ball of the foot. These joints are called the metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joints. The lateral (side to side) arch of the [...]

Bunion Illustration

Bunion

What Is A Bunion? A bunion, known medically as hallux valgus, is a common foot deformity indicated by a large lump on the inside of the big toe. The resulting big toe pain and foot pain can give problems walking and in finding comfortable shoes. A bunion is a complex deformity involving the inner side of the foot and not just a lump forming on the lower [...]


Chest Skeleton

Costochondritis & Tietze Syndrome

Tietze, a German surgeon, first described this problem of pain in the rib joints at the front of the chest in 1921. While they are closely related clinical problems they may be separate conditions. What is Costochondritis? Costochondritis involves pain and inflammation in the joints between the ribs and the costal cartilages. The costal cartilages are part of the rib cage and connect the ribs to the [...]


Man With Headache

Tension Headache

Headaches are very common and estimated to be the ninth most common reason to visit the doctor. Tension-type headaches are the most common and occur in a third to three-quarters of people over their life. Cervicogenic headaches arise from the upper neck joints and can be treated in the same way as other spinal joint disorders. What Causes Tension Headache? The cause of this type of headache [...]

Head Xray

Cervicogenic Headache

Cervicogenic headache is one of several types of headaches, in this case a headache that is caused by injury or dysfunction of the upper neck joints in the spine. It is different from tension-type headache (TTH), which is related to stress symptoms and may have muscle over-contraction as a contributing factor. How Does The Neck Cause Headache? The upper neck joints, discs, muscles and ligaments of the [...]


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